Wakabayashi H. Presbyphagia and sarcopenic dysphagia: association between aging, sarcopenia, and deglutition disorders.
Presbyphagia refers to age-related changes in the swallowing mechanism in the elderly associated with a frailty in swallowing. Presbyphagia is different from dysphagia. Sarcopenic dysphagia is difficulty swallowing due to sarcopenia of generalized skeletal muscles and swallowing muscles. Age-related loss of swallowing muscle mass becomes evident in the geniohyoid muscle and tongue. Elderly subjects with both sarcopenia and dysphagia may have not only disease-related dysphagia but also sarcopenic dysphagia. In cases of aspiration pneumonia, deterioration in activity-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia of generalized skeletal muscles and swallowing muscles may develop into sarcopenic dysphagia. Assessment of sarcopenic dysphagia includes evaluation of both dysphagia and sarcopenia. The 10-item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) and a water test combined with pulse oximetry are useful for dysphagia screening. Assessment of the multi-factorial causes of sarcopenia including nutritional review is important, because rehabilitation of sarcopenic dysphagia differs depending on its etiology. Consensus diagnostic criteria for sarcopenic dysphagia were proposed at the 19th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Dysphagia Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation for sarcopenic dysphagia includes treatment of both dysphagia and sarcopenia. The core components of dysphagia rehabilitation are oral health care, rehabilitative techniques, and food modification. The causes of adult malnutrition may also contribute to the etiology of secondary sarcopenia and sarcopenic dysphagia. Therefore, nutrition management is indispensable for sarcopenic dysphagia rehabilitation. In cases of sarcopenia with numerous complicating causes, treatment should include pharmaceutical therapies for age-related sarcopenia and comorbid chronic diseases, resistance training, early ambulation, nutrition management, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking.